How does fgm affect childbirth

Feb 06, 2019 · There are four types of FGM. Type 1: Clitoridectomy. That's the total or partial removal of the sensitive clitoris and its surrounding skin. Type 2: Excision. The partial or total removal of the ... Feb 22, 2021 · Female genital mutilation or cutting (FGM/C) means piercing, cutting, removing, or sewing closed all or part of a girl's or woman's external genitals for no medical reason. Researchers estimate more than 513,000 girls and women in the U.S. have experienced or are at risk of FGM/C. 1 Worldwide, as many as 140 million girls and women alive today ... Apr 14, 2017 · need for later surgeries: for example, the FGM procedure that seals or narrows a vaginal opening (type 3) needs to be cut open later to allow for sexual intercourse and childbirth (deinfibulation). Jun 26, 2013 · Various forms of female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) have been performed for millennia and continue to be prevalent in parts of Africa. Although the health consequences following FGM/C have been broadly investigated, divergent study results have called into question whether FGM/C is associated with obstetric consequences. To clarify the present state of empirical research, we conducted a ... UNICEF reports that 87% of women aged 15-49 had undergone some form of FGM in Sudan between 2004-2015. The link between maternal mortality and FGM has been more extensively investigated in the last decade, with the WHO producing guidelines for the management of pregnancy and childbirth in the presence of FGM. In 2010, Waris Dirie, a campaigner ...Female genital mutilation, or FGM, is a procedure in which a woman’s reproductive organs are cut, pierced, or otherwise manipulated. The procedure is painful or even fatal when it takes place, but the negative impacts of FGM last a lifetime. Contrary to popular belief, FGM is not sanctioned by any particular religion. Answer (1 of 8): I think it's very sad. I'm personally against male genital mutilation, too. I didn't have any of my three sons circumcised. It's rather barbaric to treat a baby that way, and I believe circumcision should only take place for serious medical reasons later in life, which is rarely ...Female genital mutilation, or FGM, is a procedure in which a woman’s reproductive organs are cut, pierced, or otherwise manipulated. The procedure is painful or even fatal when it takes place, but the negative impacts of FGM last a lifetime. Contrary to popular belief, FGM is not sanctioned by any particular religion. Female genital mutilation FGM is a traditional practice with serious health consequences to women that is still . practiced in 28 countries with approximately 2 million girls exposed to the practice annually. The complications of FGM cause suffering to the woman all her life. Pregnancy, childbirth and the postpartum period are particularly Women with FGM Type 2 and 3 were more prone to dystocia and obstructed labor (OR = 5.7) and cesarean delivery (OR = 5.2) than those with FGM Type 1. FGM constitutes an important risk factor for complications during childbirth. It should be eradicated for good health of the mother, newborn and child in Burkina Faso. Publication typesFeb 22, 2021 · Female genital mutilation or cutting (FGM/C) means piercing, cutting, removing, or sewing closed all or part of a girl's or woman's external genitals for no medical reason. Researchers estimate more than 513,000 girls and women in the U.S. have experienced or are at risk of FGM/C. 1 Worldwide, as many as 140 million girls and women alive today ... free excel test long-term consequences include complications during childbirth, anaemia, the formation of cysts and abscesses, keloid scar formation, damage to the urethra resulting in urinary incontinence, dyspareunia (painful sexual intercourse), sexual dysfunction, hypersensitivity of the genital area and increased risk of hiv transmission, as well as …Female genital mutilation (FGM) is any procedure involving the partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs FGM is often performed on girls between the ages of 4 and 14 to ensure their virginity until marriage. ... and complications during childbirth. In some cases, FGM can be lethal. In ...Feb 06, 2019 · There are four types of FGM. Type 1: Clitoridectomy. That's the total or partial removal of the sensitive clitoris and its surrounding skin. Type 2: Excision. The partial or total removal of the ... Answer (1 of 5): FGM does not affect the internal anatomy directly. Infections caused by the procedure can, as can recreating a vaginal opening with a knife. Only women who have undergone complete infibulation, the removal of all external genital tissue, would have difficulty getting pregnant, ...It affects 100m to 140m women worldwide and is particularly prevalent in parts of Africa. ... the procedure is carried out by a Daya (an elderly female birth attendant) when a baby girl is a few ...Female genital mutilation (FGM) refers to “all procedures involving partial or total removal of the female external genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons.” FGM is a violation of girls’ and women’s human rights. While the exact number of girls and women worldwide who have undergone FGM remains ... Women with any degree of FGM also had a 15-55% increased risk of stillbirth or early neonatal death - with more extensive FGM causing the highest risk - compared with women who had not had the...Women with any degree of FGM also had a 15-55% increased risk of stillbirth or early neonatal death - with more extensive FGM causing the highest risk - compared with women who had not had the...Female genital mutilation ( FGM ), also known as female genital cutting, female genital mutilation/cutting ( FGM/C) and female circumcision, [a] is the ritual cutting or removal of some or all of the external female genitalia. The practice is found in some countries of Africa, Asia and the Middle East, and within communities abroad from ...Answer (1 of 5): FGM does not affect the internal anatomy directly. Infections caused by the procedure can, as can recreating a vaginal opening with a knife. Only women who have undergone complete infibulation, the removal of all external genital tissue, would have difficulty getting pregnant, ...Female genital mutilation (FGM) refers to the practice of purposefully cutting, injuring, or altering female genitalia. It involves the partial or total removal of the external female genitalia.UNICEF reports that 87% of women aged 15-49 had undergone some form of FGM in Sudan between 2004-2015. The link between maternal mortality and FGM has been more extensively investigated in the last decade, with the WHO producing guidelines for the management of pregnancy and childbirth in the presence of FGM. In 2010, Waris Dirie, a campaigner ... Answer (1 of 5): FGM does not affect the internal anatomy directly. Infections caused by the procedure can, as can recreating a vaginal opening with a knife. Only women who have undergone complete infibulation, the removal of all external genital tissue, would have difficulty getting pregnant, ... Apr 05, 2017 · Female Genital Mutilation usually comes with major blood loss, tissue swelling, urinary problems, blood infections, and possibly death. In addition, women who underwent the procedure have difficulty giving birth and there’s an increased risk of newborns dying during childbirth. How does FGM affect pregnancy? FGM does not usually cause problems for a woman during pregnancy, but women who have been cut face unique health risks during childbirth. These include: • Prolonged labor • Excessive bleeding after childbirth • Higher risk for episiotomy during childbirth. There is also a higher risk that ascp prise Female genital mutilation, or FGM for short, is the deliberate cutting or removal of a female's external genitalia. It often involves the removal or cutting of the labia and clitoris, and the World...Apr 23, 2016 · Some 200 million women and girls across 30 countries have been affected by female genital mutilation (FGM). But how do survivors live with the pain of peeing, periods and childbirth? During pregnancy there are certain physiological changes which occur and make women with FGM more prone to complications. The blood supply to all the genital organs including the external genitalia is increased and hence the vulval area becomes more vascular than normal.Female genital mutilation is classified into four types: Type 1: Also known as clitoridectomy, this type consists of partial or total removal of the external part of the clitoris and/or its prepuce (clitoral hood). Type 2: Also known as excision, the external part of clitoris and labia minora are partially or totally removed, with or without ...中文. Female genital mutilation (FGM) refers to all procedures involving partial or total removal of the female external genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons. Despite being internationally recognized as a human rights violation, FGM has been performed on at least 200 million girls and women in 31 ...Why should FGM be stopped? FGM leads to lifelong pain and problems with sexual health and childbirth. Depending on the environment and type of the procedure, FGM can lead to serious health issues such as infection, illness and death. As a result, bleeding is severe, and infection can affect all or part of the genitals or reproductive organs.Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) is removal of part, or all of the female genitalia, or procedures that intentionally alter or cause injury to the female genital organs and has no ... antenatal and delivery care, including recommendations about the place of birth. Women with FGM should usually be strongly recommended to deliver in a maternity ...Infibulation, or type III FGM, may cause complete vaginal obstruction resulting in the accumulation of menstrual flow in the vagina and uterus. Infibulation creates a physical barrier to sexual intercourse and childbirth. An infibulated woman therefore has to undergo gradual dilation of the vaginal opening before sexual intercourse can take place. uscis california service center mailing address Researchers estimate more than 513,000 girls and women in the U.S. have experienced or are at risk of FGM/C. 1 Worldwide, as many as 140 million girls and women alive today have been cut. 2 FGM/C is often a part of the culture in countries where it is practiced. But FGM/C has no health benefits and can cause long-term health problems.RA Symptoms During Pregnancy. Up to 75 percent of women with RA report that symptoms of the condition such as pain and swelling are greatly reduced during pregnancy, and especially during the second trimester, according to the National Rheumatoid Arthritis Society. The normal hormonal changes that accompany pregnancy are responsible for this ...The United Nations has classified "female genital mutilation" (FGM) or cutting as an "extreme form of violence against girls" and a violation of their rights. FGM is now known to cause ...FGM has no health benefits [ 6 ]. One of the major problems related to FGM is the difficulty experienced during childbirth [ 9 ]. Even though there is no agreed cutoff age during which an FGM is performed, commonly it is done in girls aged 10 years or less, exposing them to varying degree of scar formation [ 13 ].Amy Norton Pregnant women who underwent female genital cutting as girls are at increased risk of needing an emergency Cesarean section or suffering serious tears during childbirth, a new study finds. It is estimated that more than 130 million women worldwide have undergone female genital mutilation, also known as female "circumcision."Aug 25, 2020 · Female genital mutilation (FGM) refers to the practice of purposefully cutting, injuring, or altering female genitalia. It involves the partial or total removal of the external female genitalia. In those settings all types of FGM were found to pose an increased risk of death to the baby: 15 percent higher for Type I, 32 percent for Type II and 55 percent for Type III. The reasons for this were unclear, but may be connected to genital and urinary-tract infections and the presence of scar tissue.Female genital mutilation (FGM) refers to “all procedures involving partial or total removal of the female external genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons.” FGM is a violation of girls’ and women’s human rights. While the exact number of girls and women worldwide who have undergone FGM remains ... The researchers analyzed findings for 431 women who gave birth to single babies at NewYork-Presbyterian/Weill Cornell Medical Center between April 2020 and July 2021 and compared results for 164 ... games to play with your boyfriend online Women with FGM Type 2 and 3 were more prone to dystocia and obstructed labor (OR = 5.7) and cesarean delivery (OR = 5.2) than those with FGM Type 1. FGM constitutes an important risk factor for complications during childbirth. It should be eradicated for good health of the mother, newborn and child in Burkina Faso. Publication typesFemale genital mutilation ( FGM) refers to all procedures involving partial or total removal of the external female genitalia, or other injury to the female genital organs, for non-medical reasons ...The majority of women who have undergone female genital mutilation (FGM) were between nine and 12 years old, Egypt's Minister of Health Adel Adawy said. Data was pulled from a poll that surveyed. . . FGM is also perpetuated by various myths including beliefs that the woman's clitoris would grow if left uncut potentially harming a baby in ... The connection between FGM/C and urinary symptoms can be understood from the literature on childhood sexual assault and urinary symptoms. Most women who experience FGM/C recall fear, pain, and helplessness. Like sexual assault, FGM/C is known to cause post-traumatic stress disorder, somatization, depression, and anxiety.Jul 20, 2018 · Background In Ethiopia, female genital mutilation (FGM) remains a serious concern and has affected 23.8 million women and girls, with the highest prevalence in Somali regional state. Even though FGM is reported to be associated with a range of obstetric complications, little is known about its effects on childbirth in the region. Therefore, the objective of this study was to test the ... There are four main types of FGM: Type 1 (clitoridectomy) - removing part or all of the clitoris. Type 2 (excision) - removing part or all of the clitoris and cutting the inner and/or outer labia. Type 3 (infibulation) - narrowing the vaginal opening. Type 4 - other harmful procedures to the female genitals including pricking, piercing ...Many women and girls suffer complications in silence. FGM affects girls and women psychologically and physically, with immediate and long-term implications. FGM/C can cause girls to have low self-esteem when they know their bodies have been tampered with, and the practice affects women's reproductive health.Somalia is the worst country in Africa when it comes to Female Genital Mutilation. About 98% of Somali women have undergone the cut. In Somalia, FGM is no longer practiced as a rite of passage. Girls nowadays are circumcised between the ages of five and eight at the privacy of their homes. In most parts of the country, traditional circumcisers ...Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) refers to a cultural practice which involves partial removal of or injury to the female external genitalia for cultural or other non-therapeutic reasons. Estimates suggest that there are 100-130 million girls and women currently living with various health consequences from FGM/C. We aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the sexual ... kubota b7100 salvage parts1973 chevrolet c50Sr. Gachiri met with Crystal Corman on April 23, 2015 in Nairobi to discuss her work since 1998 to stop FGM. During this interview, she shares her motivation for focusing her attention and energy on FGM in Kenya and describes her unique faith-based approach. With over 15 years of experience, Sr. Gachiri also speaks about the challenges and need ...Answer (1 of 5): FGM does not affect the internal anatomy directly. Infections caused by the procedure can, as can recreating a vaginal opening with a knife. Only women who have undergone complete infibulation, the removal of all external genital tissue, would have difficulty getting pregnant, ... FGM is a hidden practice of child abuse and violence to girls; perhaps the most extreme way in which women are subordinated by men ( Dorkenoo, 1995 ). FGM has been internationally recognised as a form of torture and violence against women. Women endure the life long lasting consequence of the practice in the name of culture and tradition.Female genital mutilation is one of the most dangerous practices that cause torture and death among those who undergo the procedure. Without much knowledge for those practicing female genital mutilation, meaning the practitioners of the practice and those, undergoing the practice. The girls and women do not know much about the human rights.Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) describes any procedure that intentionally alters female genital organs for non-medical reasons (Source: the World Health Organisation, WHO). It has no health benefits for girls. It can cause severe bleeding, problems urinating, and later cysts, infections, as well as complications in childbirth and ...Apr 23, 2016 · Some 200 million women and girls across 30 countries have been affected by female genital mutilation (FGM). But how do survivors live with the pain of peeing, periods and childbirth? Dec 27, 2018 · Many opponents of FGM argue that associating MGM with FGM is not applicable. They make this argument by noting the following: FGM has no proven health benefits. The girls FGM is performed on do not consent but are old enough to remember the trauma of the experience. FGM can affect pregnancy and sex later on. Many men are happy with their ... The researchers analyzed findings for 431 women who gave birth to single babies at NewYork-Presbyterian/Weill Cornell Medical Center between April 2020 and July 2021 and compared results for 164 ...The researchers analyzed findings for 431 women who gave birth to single babies at NewYork-Presbyterian/Weill Cornell Medical Center between April 2020 and July 2021 and compared results for 164 ...Introduction and hypothesis: Female genital mutilation (FGM) has been associated with adverse obstetric and neonatal outcomes, such as postpartum haemorrhage (PPH), perineal trauma, genital fistulae, obstructed labour and stillbirth. The prevalence of FGM has increased in the UK over the last decade. After childbirth, the mother is sewn back together again to heal. (Toubia, 1994). ... But how does female circumcision compare with male circumcision? The latter is seen as a normal operation in American society, while its female counterpart is viewed as a form of child abuse. Some opponents of FC liken the operation to a penisdectomy (Toubia ... eels asian porn Feb 07, 2018 · The connection between FGM and education is twofold: education and awareness about the practice and its risks and general educational attainment. Teaching young girls and women about the dangers of FGM is a powerful tool in changing public opinion and reversing the trend. However, the importance of overall education may seem less clear. Female genital mutilation breaches several human rights principles. It is mostly performed on young girls and infants and is therefore a violation of the rights of the child. The practice also violates the rights to health, security and physical integrity of the person, the right to be free from torture and cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment ... May 03, 2017 · 1 of 3. Photographed by Elisabeth Ubbe. Infibulation at age 8. The clitoris and labia were excised, then sewn together. After being opened by a midwife, with anesthesia, she has given birth to ... Social effects of FGM. knowing what happens when a woman is circumcised is very essential and it creates awareness to the ignorant about the action of FGM they embrace. On a social stand, an innocent girl child is tortured in the name of tradition, and when she comes to a certain age, the effects of this barbaric act become a nightmare to her.Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) refers to a cultural practice which involves partial removal of or injury to the female external genitalia for cultural or other non-therapeutic reasons. Estimates suggest that there are 100-130 million girls and women currently living with various health consequences from FGM/C. We aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the sexual ...The health consequences of female genital mutilation (FGM) have been described previously; however, evidence of the social consequences is more intangible. To date, few systematic reviews have addressed the impact of the practice on psycho-social well-being, and there is limited understanding of what these consequences might consist. solar autocad training How does FGM affect pregnancy? FGM does not usually cause problems for a woman during pregnancy, but women who have been cut face unique health risks during childbirth. These include: • Prolonged labor • Excessive bleeding after childbirth • Higher risk for episiotomy during childbirth. There is also a higher risk that RA Symptoms During Pregnancy. Up to 75 percent of women with RA report that symptoms of the condition such as pain and swelling are greatly reduced during pregnancy, and especially during the second trimester, according to the National Rheumatoid Arthritis Society. The normal hormonal changes that accompany pregnancy are responsible for this ...Female genital mutilation remains a human rights violation of girls and women. FGM affects 20 million women. It is the partial or complete removal of external female genitalia for non medical reasons. Female genital removal is carried out on girls between infancy and 15 years. It is mostly carried out without anesthetic and in some […]Jul 20, 2018 · In Ethiopia, female genital mutilation (FGM) remains a serious concern and has affected 23.8 million women and girls, with the highest prevalence in Somali regional state. Even though FGM is reported to be associated with a range of obstetric complications, little is known about its effects on childbirth in the region. The case of Sri Lanka is evidence that long-term government commitment to improving health services for pregnant women can successfully reduce mortality rates in low-income countries [17]. Between 2005-2015, maternal mortality rates have been steadily decreasing at the annual rate of 3.4% [18]. The maternal mortality ratio has declined from 75 ...The purpose of this guideline is to provide evidence-based guidance on the management of women with female genital mutilation (FGM) and those who are considered to be at risk. It covers the clinical care of women before, during and after pregnancy, including the legal and regulatory responsibilities of health professionals.The connection between FGM/C and urinary symptoms can be understood from the literature on childhood sexual assault and urinary symptoms. Most women who experience FGM/C recall fear, pain, and helplessness. Like sexual assault, FGM/C is known to cause post-traumatic stress disorder, somatization, depression, and anxiety.Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) can affect a woman's mental health long after the procedure, into her adult life. Women with FGM/C often show signs of psychological trauma: anxiety, somatization, depression, post-traumatic stress and other mood disorders. Shock and sadness 1 Feelings of isolation* Anxiety 1, 2, 3 Depression 1FGM has no health benefits [ 6 ]. One of the major problems related to FGM is the difficulty experienced during childbirth [ 9 ]. Even though there is no agreed cutoff age during which an FGM is performed, commonly it is done in girls aged 10 years or less, exposing them to varying degree of scar formation [ 13 ].FGM is estimated to lead to an extra one to two perinatal deaths per 100 deliveries Women with FGM were more likely to be complicated by: Caesarean section Postpartum haemorrhage Episiotomy (41% for FGM II to 88% for those with FGM III) Extended maternal hospital stay Obstructed labour due to scar tissue Resuscitation of the infantThe practice of female genital mutilation (FGM) has proved remarkably tenacious, despite attempts spanning nearly a century to eliminate it. Nevertheless, a number of countries have seen some declines in the practice - at least up until the COVID-19 pandemic, the impact of which is yet to be fully understood. Other changes in FGM are also ...Risks to the baby include low birth weight (smaller than 5 ½ pounds at birth), breathing problems at birth, and stillbirth or early death. Women and girls can also experience severe, long-lasting mental health issues. During the procedure, girls are held down, often against their will, and they might not understand what is being done to them ...May 11, 2020 · Female genital mutilation or cutting (FGM/C) is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as “all procedures involving partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons.” 1(p.1) These procedures could mean piercing, cutting, removing, or sewing closed all or part of a girl’s or woman’s external genitals. Each woman with FGM was matched for age, ethnicity, parity and gestation with subsequent patients without FGM (control cohort) over the same 5-year period. Outcomes assessed were mode of delivery, duration of labour, estimated blood loss, analgaesia, perineal trauma and foetal outcomes. Results:The connection between FGM/C and urinary symptoms can be understood from the literature on childhood sexual assault and urinary symptoms. Most women who experience FGM/C recall fear, pain, and helplessness. Like sexual assault, FGM/C is known to cause post-traumatic stress disorder, somatization, depression, and anxiety. electric saw for woodHow does FGM affect pregnancy? FGM does not usually cause problems for a woman during pregnancy, but women who have been cut face unique health risks during childbirth. These include: • Prolonged labor • Excessive bleeding after childbirth • Higher risk for episiotomy during childbirth. There is also a higher risk that Each woman with FGM was matched for age, ethnicity, parity and gestation with subsequent patients without FGM (control cohort) over the same 5-year period. Outcomes assessed were mode of delivery, duration of labour, estimated blood loss, analgaesia, perineal trauma and foetal outcomes. Results:For those who are pregnant and have tested positive for chlamydia, it's possible to pass the virus on to the child during delivery. Other possible complications associated with chlamydia during pregnancy include: Premature birth. Low birth weight. If a woman contracts chlamydia while pregnant, it can often be treated with an antibiotic.How does hyperparathyroidism affect pregnancy? Hyperparathyroidism is associated with a three- to fivefold increased risk of miscarriage, primarily in the second trimester. Fetal loss is associated with levels >11.4 mg/dL. Seventy-two percent of pregnancy losses in a study conducted by Norman and colleagues occurred at or above this level (11).The effects of female genital mutilation on women and babies during childbirth. The study, which provides the first reliable evidence that female genital mutilation can adversely affect birth ... crane fly orchid for saleMay 20, 2019 · 4. FGM can cause life-threatening childbirth complications FGM can cause serious and even life-threatening complications during childbirth.Scar tissue may not stretch enough to accommodate a newborn, making delivery even more painful than is usual, and making it more likely that the woman will need a Caesarean section or other emergency interventions. Feb 06, 2020 · Female genital mutilation (FGM) exacts a crippling economic as well as human cost, according to World Health Organization (WHO). “FGM is not only a catastrophic abuse of human rights that significantly harms the physical and mental health of millions of girls and women; it is also a drain on a country’s vital economic resources,” said Dr ... Each woman with FGM was matched for age, ethnicity, parity and gestation with subsequent patients without FGM (control cohort) over the same 5-year period. Outcomes assessed were mode of delivery, duration of labour, estimated blood loss, analgaesia, perineal trauma and foetal outcomes. Results:Various forms of female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) have been performed for millennia and continue to be prevalent in parts of Africa. Although the health consequences following FGM/C have been broadly investigated, divergent study results have called into question whether FGM/C is associated with obstetric consequences. To clarify the present state of empirical research, we conducted a ...FGM can happen at different times in a girl or woman's life, including: when a baby is new-born. during childhood or as a teenager. just before marriage. during pregnancy. We're here to support you, no matter your worry. Call us on 0808 800 5000, email [email protected] or fill in our online form.How does FGM affect pregnancy? FGM does not usually cause problems for a woman during pregnancy, but women who have been cut face unique health risks during childbirth. These include: • Prolonged labor • Excessive bleeding after childbirth • Higher risk for episiotomy during childbirth. There is also a higher risk that Answer (1 of 5): FGM does not affect the internal anatomy directly. Infections caused by the procedure can, as can recreating a vaginal opening with a knife. Only women who have undergone complete infibulation, the removal of all external genital tissue, would have difficulty getting pregnant, ...The type of FGM/C. Type 3 causes more health problems than type 1 or type 2. The general health of the girl or woman; How does FGM/C affect pregnancy and delivery? FGM/C does not usually cause problems for a woman during pregnancy, but women who have been cut face unique health risks during childbirth. These include: Prolonged labor. Various forms of female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) have been performed for millennia and continue to be prevalent in parts of Africa. Although the health consequences following FGM/C have been broadly investigated, divergent study results have called into question whether FGM/C is associated with obstetric consequences. To clarify the present state of empirical research, we conducted a ...FGM can happen at different times in a girl or woman's life, including: when a baby is new-born. during childhood or as a teenager. just before marriage. during pregnancy. We're here to support you, no matter your worry. Call us on 0808 800 5000, email [email protected] or fill in our online form. 1939 chevy for sale craigslist xa